Interpreters and the Making of History
Jean Delisle & Judith Woodsworth,
Translated by GUAN Xingzhong & ZHANG Siyu
(Beijing Language and Culture University)
Abstract: This excerpt was translated from Chapter 9 of Translators through History (Delisle & Woodsworth, 2012), which expounds on the history of interpreting, interpreting training and its research methods. It elaborates on the evolving forms and methods of interpreting from consecutive interpreting to simultaneous interpreting and related events such as Paris Peace Conference and the trial of the major war criminals before the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg. Two important interpreters during the Exploration and Conquest of the New World, Doña Marina (c.1500-c.1530) and Sacajawea (c.1788-1812?）are discussed.
Keywords: Translators through History, history of interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting
Non-professional interpreting: An Introduction
WANG Yanqiang (Fudan University)
Abstract: In the past half century, interpreting studies has focused more on professional interpreting than on non-professional interpreting, despite the fact that the latter accounts for about half of the interpreting market. In the history of interpreting, very few interpreters were professionally trained; they became interpreters rather accidentally and most of them worked on an ad hoc or informal basis. This study defines non-professional interpreting in theoretical and practical terms, and proposes four types of non-professional interpreting. It compares professional interpreting and non-professional interpreting in terms of interpreting skills, experiences and professional ethics, and provides new perspectives for interpreter training.
Keywords: non-professional interpreting, natural translation, native translation, interpreter training
Working Memory and Interpreting: A Review
LI Jing (Nankai University)
Abstract: Working memory has been an important topic in cognitive translation studies. This review starts from historical perspectives on memory in interpreting, and covers the critical issues and topics in this field, major findings and proposals, main research methods, and future research directions. It adopts a comparative approach by comparing relevant research in China and in the West. The emphasis is on perspectives from cognitive psychology. By taking stock of research on memory in interpreting, this review will help readers to understand this important area of research, and stimulate researchers and practitioners to deal with unresolved issues in ongoing and future research.
Keywords: interdisciplinary, working memory, comparative analysis
Peer Feedback and Motivation Internalization in the Learning of Simultaneous Interpreting: An Empirical Study
LIN Wei (Beijing Foreign Studies University) &
ZHUANG Yishu (National Defence University PLA China)
Abstract: Peer feedback has been a proven effective pedagogical practice in writing and second language learning. It provides students more opportunities to learn from one another and benefit from others’ comments, and makes students more engaged and autonomous in learning for achieving better learning outcome. This study applied the peer feedback practice to Chinese-English simultaneous interpreting learning and conducted a 4-month pedagogical experiment (n=30) to study the potential impact of this pedagogical practice on the internalization of the learners’ motives. The results confirmed the positive contribution of peer feedback to motivation internalization. This study provides evidence-based pedagogical suggestions to Chinese-English simultaneous interpreting learning.
Keywords: peer feedback, motivation internalization, simultaneous interpreting
English Translations of Chinese Poetry in Britain: An Introduction
ZHANG Zhizhong (Tianjin Normal University)
Abstract: Since the 18th century, Chinese poetry started to be translated and introduced into Britain. Most of the early translators were missionaries and diplomats who had sojourned in China for a long time. Thanks to their efforts, the influence of English translations of Tang poems quickly spread to the circle of literature and art in Britain. In the past two centuries, there emerged some influential translators in Britain who were engaged in the translation of Chinese poetry, such as James Legge, Herbert A. Giles, and Arthur D. Waley; they have become representative figures in the Chinese-English literary translation field. Since World War II, the sinologists and translators who have established themselves are mostly from the United States, including Burton Watson, Garry Snyder, Stephen Owen, and others, and it can be said that the center of the translation of Chinese poetry has consequently shifted from Britain to the United States. This study probes into the history of the translation of Chinese poetry in Britain, analyzes some translations done by representative translators, and looks ahead at the future of the translation of Chinese poetry.
Keywords: Chinese poetry, Britain, translators
Translation as Reconstruction of the Text-value System: A View Based on Axiology and Systems Theory
NIU Jun (Nankai University & Gansu Normal University For Nationalities)
Abstract: Through translational activity, the value relation in the text is changed and the text-value system purposefully reconstructed. A text-value system consists of linguistic value, functional value and cultural value in accordance with the linguistic feature, pragmatic function and cultural factors of the text. For translation, the text value includes default value and attached value, the former of which is transmitted while the latter transformed. Influenced by extra-textual factors, the dynamic transmission and transformation of the text value is the prerequisite for and basic feature of text-value system reconstruction. Since text-value loss is often inevitable, for the reconstruction of text value, translation compensation is important in the process of translation. Constructing the text-value system is to describe the structure of the text value and prescribe the choice of translation strategies by maintaining the text value. The translator’s awareness of the text value, judgment of the acceptability of the text, and accordingly choice of compensation strategies would directly influence the quality of translation.
Keywords: text value, expression forms, realization ways, translation compensation, system reconstruction
The Poetics of Diaspora and Translation as Reconstruction: A Study of Zhang Zao’s Translation of Seamus Heaney’s Poems
WANG Xiulu (Sun Yat-sen University)
Abstract: The poetics of diaspora examines the use of language and major themes in diaspora poetry, seeking to articulate the complexities, ambivalences and heterogeneity of diaspora experience. In the context of cross-cultural translation, one of the key issues is how to represent the distinctive features of diasporic writing and its inherent reflections on cultural identity and hybridity. From the perspective of diaspora poetics, this paper conducts a case study on Zhang Zao’s translation of Seamus Heaney’s poems. It explores the displacement and connections between cultural memory and lived experiences as demonstrated in Seamus Heaney’s poems, investigates how Heaney’s diaspora consciousness was rendered and reconstructed in Zhang Zao’s translation, and further highlights the relevance and influence of translator’s diasporic experiences to the process of translation.
Keywords: diaspora, cultural identity, translation
The Reception of Local-flavored Subtitle Translation of English Films in China: An Empirical Study
DENG Ping (China University of Petroleum-Beijing & Beijing
Foreign Studies University)
Abstract: Over the past decade, subtitle translation has been steadily increasing in Chinese cinemas. Local-flavored translation, which is different from domesticating, has been a popular yet controversial approach. By employing questionnaire and interview methods, this study looks into the opinions of the Chinese audience on local-flavored translation and the reasons behind them. The questionnaire results show that over 50% of the audience prefer the local-flavored translation. The interviews reveal different attitudes toward local-flavored translation, which are influenced by such factors as translation workflow, target audience, purposes, quality control and the participants during the translation process. Further analysis shows that the reception of localized translation in film subtitling in present China is the result of the interaction of various factors in Chinese literary polysystem.
Keywords: subtitle translation, local-flavored translation, polysystem
Book Review: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology
LV Qi & WANG Shuhuai (Huazhong University of Science and Technology)
Abstract: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Technology provides a state-of-the-art survey of the field of translation technology. It is characterized by diachronic and synchronic introductions, a stress on the latest developments in China, and considerations for both professionals and non-professional readers. As the first definitive reference in its field, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the general, regional and topical aspects of this increasingly significant area of study for the readers to approach translation technology.
Keywords: translation technology, encyclopedia, machine translation, computer-aided translation
An Interview with Gu Zixin, a Chinese Translator of Robert Frost’s Poems
JIAO Pengshuai (Southwest University for Nationalities)
YAN Haifeng (Shandong University of Political Science and Law)
Abstract: Gu Zixin (1939- ) is a renowned Chinese poetry translator. Some of his translation of Robert Frost’s poems has been canonized in China. This interview focuses on how he rendered The Road Not Taken and Stopping by Woods in a Snowy Evening into Chinese in the 1980s. It covers how he selected Frost’s poems, translation strategies he adopted, as well as the translatability and un-translatability of poetry. It foregrounds how a translator works and provides answers to some criticism directed toward his translation.
Keywords: Robert Frost, Gu Zixin, poetry translation, oral history, translation criticism
An Interview with Editors-in-chief of Translation Studies Journals
BAI Ling (Xinjiang University)
Abstract: The paper is the interview with Professor He Gangqiang, the editor-in-chief of Shanghai Journal of Translators, and Professor Ma Huijuan, the editor-in-chief of Translation Horizons. Two professors discuss the aim of their journals, the special columns, the subject selection, how to choose a good research topic, etc. This interview will help us have a better understanding of writing academic papers.
Keywords: translation studies, Shanghai Journal of Translators, Translation Horizons